Gender Education


Student Enrolment

Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)

The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) is the total enrolment for a particular education level (primary or secondary), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population of that particular education level in a given school-year.

Chart 1

4.1: GER in Primary Education
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Chart 2

4.2: GER in Secondary Education
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2010-11 AEPAM)

Chart 3

4.3: GER in Overall Education
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2010-11 AEPAM)

Gender Parity Index (GPI)

The GPI reflects females’ level of access to education compared to that of males. This is calculated for each school phase. A GPI of less than 1 indicates that there are fewer females than males in the formal education system in proportion to the appropriate school-age population. A GPI of more than 1 means that there are proportionately more girls than boys attending school. A score of 1 reflects equal enrolment rates for boys and girls.

Chart 4

4.4: GPI of GER Primary
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Chart 5

4.5: GPI of GER Secondary
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Gross Intake Rate (GIR)

Total number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age. A high GIR indicates in general a high degree of access to primary education.

Chart 6

4.6: GIR in Primary Education
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Province/ Area

Pre Primary

Primary

Middle

High

Higher Secondary

Pakistan

45

44

43

42

28

Punjab

47

46

46

45

31

Sindh

46

43

44

42

24

KP

41

41

35

33

25

Balochistan

38

40

35

33

36

AJ&K

47

49

47

44

35

GB

42

42

40

40

49

FATA

33

33

15

13

19

ICT

47

49

50

49

56

4.7: Percentage of Female Enrolment in Schools:
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2010-11 AEPAM)

Province/ Area

Urban

Rural

Total

Pakistan

46

42

43

Punjab

48

44

46

Sindh

46

37

42

KP

39

38

39

Balochistan

38

39

39

AJ&K

47

47

47

GB

45

40

42

FATA

-

30

30

ICT

48

51

49

4.8: Percentage of Female Enrolment by Location
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12  AEPAM)

Percentage of Female Teachers

Chart 7

4.9: Number of female teachers expressed as a percentage of total number of teachers in one particular education level such as primary, secondary, vocational and technical.
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Pakistan’s overall education system is facilitating 58% male students as compared to 42% female students as reflected in figure 4.10. The overall education system (up-to degree collages) is served by 45% of male teachers and 55% of female teachers as shown in figure 4.11.

Chart 8Chart 9

4.10-4.11: Distribution of students and Teachers by gender, respectively.
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Level

Students Enrolment

Teachers

Male

Female

Male

Female

Primary Schools

9.889 million (57%)

7.487 million (43%)

228,545 (54%)

196,514 (46%)

Middle Stage

3.400 million (43%)

2.546 million (57%)

117,471 (33%)

233,896 (67%)

High Schools

1.559 million (57%)

1.125 million (43%)

187,416 (46%)

271,690 (59%)

Higher Secondary/Inter Colleges

0.900 million (72%)

0.345 million (28%)

43,771 (51%)

52,203 (54%)

Degree Colleges grades 13 and 14

0.303 million (58%)

0.220 million (42%)

23,716 (59%)

16,411 (41%)

Universities

0.677 million (51%),

0.642 million (49%)

-

-

Technical and Vocational
Institutions

0.180 million
(62%)

0.109 million (38%)

10,768 (68%)

5,079 (32%)

Teachers Training Institutions

0.460 million (66%)

0.232
million (34%)

-

-

Deeni Madaris

1.095 million (62%),

0.663 million (38%)

44,427 (77%)

13,158 (23%)

4.12. Distribution of Students’ Enrolment and Teachers
in Educational Institutes of Pakistan.

(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Educational Opportunities

Level

Total

Boys

Girls

Mixed

Total

Pre Primary

5

16

484

505

Primary

87,111

50,626

16,408

154,145

Middle

8,968

9,006

23,971

41,945

High

8,655

5,885

14,116

28,655

Higher Secondary

1,083

960

1,487

3,530

Inter College

262

299

424

985

Degree College

656

570

158

1,384

Grand Total

106,740

67,361

57,048

231,149

4.13. Institutions (Public, Other, Private Sector)
by Level and Gender and Location 2011-12

(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Level

Total

Boys

Girls

Mixed

Total

Primary

85,181

48,166

-

133,347

Middle

8,035

7,827

-

15,862

High

6,766

4,158

-

10,924

Higher Secondary

734

555

-

1,289

Inter College

70

46

18

134

Degree College

638

517

89

1,244

Grand Total

101,424

61,269

107

162,800

4.14. Institutions (Public Sector) by Level and Gender and Location 2011-12
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Level

Total

Boys

Girls

Mixed

Total

Pre Primary

5

16

484

505

Primary

808

992

16,408

18,208

Middle

782

1035

23,971

25,788

High

1,687

1,575

14,116

17,388

Higher Secondary

332

373

1,487

2,192

Inter College

175

239

382

796

Degree College

13

40

61

114

Grand Total

3,812

4,270

56,909

64,991

4.15. Institutions (Private Sector) by Level and Gender and Location 2011-12
(Source: Pakistan Education Statistics, 2011-12 AEPAM)

Chart 10

4.16. Education of Women Working in Pakistan’s Public Sector
(Source: PCST SURVEY 2010-2011)

Higher Education:

6807 (76.25 % Male and 23.74 % Female) have been produced by Pakistani universities ill 2010. The percentage of PhDs in science is more than half (57.17%). During the years 2004-05 to 2009-10, 2050 PhDs in science disciplines have been produced by Pakistani universities in total, out of which 73.60 % (1509) were male and 26.39 % (541) were female (ww.hec.gov.pk).

The research of these PhDs was supervised by scientists and engineers working in the R&D organizations and HEI institutes of Pakistan. According to HEC data, a total of 1919 (1642 Males and 277 Females) scientists/ engineers have been enrolled as approved supervisors for the PhD research (ww.hec.gov.pk). Mostly the PhD research is being done in the disciplines of science, with 1692 supervisors in science and technology and only 227 in social sciences. The data of science and technology supervisors reveal that 1471 (85.56%) of these are male while only 221 (13.06%) are females. If this is compared with the social scientists the percentage of females supervising the PhD research is relatively higher (24.66%).

If the data of PhDs awarded in various science disciplines is considered from the years  2004-05 to 2009-10, only 790 scientists and engineers out of 1692 that have registered as HEC approved supervisors have actually supervised the PhD research work, with only 98 (12.4 %) females.

Chart 11

4.17. Increase in Enrollment in Universities over the years (Gender wise)
(Source: HEC annual report 2010-11)

Scholarships:

Discipline

Overseas Scholarships (90% category)

Overseas Scholarships (10% category)

Overseas Scholarship Scheme for PhD in selected fields (Phase-1)

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences

169

14

183

21

12

33

59

9

68

Arts and Humanities

13

8

21

4

3

7

4

3

7

Biological and Medical Sciences

96

40

136

18

13

31

58

16

74

Business Education

33

7

40

9

0

9

25

5

30

Engineering and Technology

284

8

292

21

1

22

203

15

218

Physical Scinces

270

52

322

14

4

18

184

29

213

Social Sciences

61

13

74

19

8

27

58

19

77

Total

926

142

1068

106

41

147

591

96

687

4.18. Discipline wise award of scholarships in different scholarship schemes of HEC
(Source: HEC annual report 2009-10)

Chart 12

4.19. Total Overseas PhD Completed by June 2011 Gender wise under Overseas Scholarship Schemes
(Source: HEC annual report 2010-11)

Chart 13

4.20. Indigenous PhD Fellowship Program (5000 Fellowships)
(Source: HEC annual report 2010-11)